Today, India has the 2nd highest crop output in the world. Different types of farming systems are followed in India according to the location where they are most suitable. The farming system that majorly contributes to the agriculture sector in India is subsistence farming, organic farming and commercial farming.
Due to geographical location, certain parts experience different climates, thus affecting each region’s agricultural productivity differently.
India has one of the largest plains areas in the world the Indo-Gangetic plain which is immensely fertile. India has varieties of climatic conditions and soil types.
1. Subsistence Farming
The majority of farmers in India practice subsistence farming for their consumption. Farmers and their families are the largest consumers’ of their entire productions and they do not have any surplus to sell in the market. This type of farming produces small output. They do not use high-yield varieties of old seeds and fertilizer.
It can be classified into two types –
Intensive subsistence farming
It includes a small plot of land for growing crops, simple, low coast tools, and more labor. Rice is the main crop of this farming. Other crops include wheat, maize, pulses, and oilseed.
Extensive subsistence farming
It includes shifting cultivation and nomadic herding. Under shifting cultivation there is a spread in thickly forested areas like the Amazon basin, tropical Africa, Southeast Asia, and northeast India. These are the areas of heavy rainfall.it is a quick regeneration of vegetation.
Under nomadic herding, It is done in the semi-dry area and dry areas. Like central Asia, some parts of India like Rajasthan and Jammu, and Kashmir. The most used animal in this farming is sheep, camels, yak, and goats.
2. Commercial Farming
What is commercial farming? Yes, it is here that these farming crops are growing for sale in the market. The main purpose of this farming is to do business. It required large areas and a high level of technology. In this system, farmers use inputs like irrigation, chemical fertilizers, insecticide, pesticides, HIV seeds, etc. In this farming, one or more are grown together. It has good rainfall and irrigation. The products are processed on the farm itself nearby factories.
These products do not directly go to the sale. After growing these products, the leaves are roasted in factories or farms. These are all tree crops.
Rice farming in Harayana is mainly for commercial purpose as people of this area is predominantly wheat eaters. In East and North-Eastern states of India, rice cultivation would be larger of subsistence type.
This farming required a large amount of labor and large areas. It used simple crops like tea, coffee, cotton, rubber, banana, and sugarcane. This farming takes a long period to mature the products but these are produced for long periods.
3. Plantation Farming
You might think that what is plantation agriculture? So let’s see what this type of farming is. In this type, a single cash crop is grown for sale in national and international markets. This type of agriculture involves the growing and processing of a single cash crop purely meant for sale. Tea, coffee, rubber, banana, and spices are all examples of plant crops. This type of agriculture involves growing and processing a single cash crop purely meant for seals. The development of a transport network is thus essential for such farming.
Plantations agriculture is export-oriented agriculture where the focus is more on the marketing ability of the crop. Most of the crops grown in plantation agriculture have a life cycle of more than two years. It is practiced in Kerala, Karnataka, Assam, and Maharashtra. These types of farming are capital-centered and need good managerial ability, technical knowledge, and improved machinery, fertilizers, and irrigation and transport facilities among others.
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